Kubernetes集群安装文档-v1.6版本

2017-4-13 fredzeng linux

本系列文档介绍使用二进制部署 kubernetes 集群的所有步骤,而不是使用 kubeadm 等自动化方式来部署集群,同时开启了集群的TLS安全认证;

在部署的过程中,将详细列出各组件的启动参数,给出配置文件,详解它们的含义和可能遇到的问题。

部署完成后,你将理解系统各组件的交互原理,进而能快速解决实际问题。

所以本文档主要适合于那些有一定 kubernetes 基础,想通过一步步部署的方式来学习和了解系统配置、运行原理的人。

项目代码中提供了汇总后的markdon和pdf格式的安装文档,pdf版本文档下载

注:本文档中不包括docker和私有镜像仓库的安装。

提供所有的配置文件

集群安装时所有组件用到的配置文件,包含在以下目录中:

  • etc: service的环境变量配置文件
  • manifest: kubernetes应用的yaml文件
  • systemd :systemd serivce配置文件

集群详情

  • Kubernetes 1.6.0
  • Docker 1.12.5(使用yum安装)
  • Etcd 3.1.5
  • Flanneld 0.7 vxlan 网络
  • TLS 认证通信 (所有组件,如 etcd、kubernetes master 和 node)
  • RBAC 授权
  • kublet TLS BootStrapping
  • kubedns、dashboard、heapster(influxdb、grafana)、EFK(elasticsearch、fluentd、kibana) 集群插件
  • 私有docker镜像仓库harbor(请自行部署,harbor提供离线安装包,直接使用docker-compose启动即可)

步骤介绍

  1. 创建 TLS 通信所需的证书和秘钥
  2. 创建 kubeconfig 文件
  3. 创建三节点的高可用 etcd 集群
  4. kubectl命令行工具
  5. 部署高可用 master 集群
  6. 部署 node 节点
  7. kubedns 插件
  8. Dashboard 插件
  9. Heapster 插件
  10. EFK 插件

一、创建 kubernetes 各组件 TLS 加密通信的证书和秘钥

kubernetes 系统的各组件需要使用 TLS 证书对通信进行加密,本文档使用 CloudFlare 的 PKI 工具集 cfssl 来生成 Certificate Authority (CA) 和其它证书;

生成的 CA 证书和秘钥文件如下:

  • ca-key.pem
  • ca.pem
  • kubernetes-key.pem
  • kubernetes.pem
  • kube-proxy.pem
  • kube-proxy-key.pem
  • admin.pem
  • admin-key.pem

使用证书的组件如下:

  • etcd:使用 ca.pem、kubernetes-key.pem、kubernetes.pem;
  • kube-apiserver:使用 ca.pem、kubernetes-key.pem、kubernetes.pem;
  • kubelet:使用 ca.pem;
  • kube-proxy:使用 ca.pem、kube-proxy-key.pem、kube-proxy.pem;
  • kubectl:使用 ca.pem、admin-key.pem、admin.pem;

kube-controllerkube-scheduler 当前需要和 kube-apiserver 部署在同一台机器上且使用非安全端口通信,故不需要证书。

安装 CFSSL

方式一:直接使用二进制源码包安装

$ wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64 $ chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64
$ sudo mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /root/local/bin/cfssl

$ wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64 $ chmod +x cfssljson_linux-amd64
$ sudo mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /root/local/bin/cfssljson

$ wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 $ chmod +x cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
$ sudo mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /root/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo

$ export PATH=/root/local/bin:$PATH

方式二:使用go命令安装

我们的系统中安装了Go1.7.5,使用以下命令安装更快捷:

$go get -u github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/cmd/... $echo $GOPATH /usr/local $ls /usr/local/bin/cfssl* cfssl cfssl-bundle cfssl-certinfo cfssljson cfssl-newkey cfssl-scan

$GOPATH/bin目录下得到以cfssl开头的几个命令。

创建 CA (Certificate Authority)

创建 CA 配置文件

$ mkdir /root/ssl
$ cd /root/ssl
$ cfssl print-defaults config > config.json
$ cfssl print-defaults csr > csr.json
$ cat ca-config.json { "signing": { "default": { "expiry": "8760h" }, "profiles": { "kubernetes": { "usages": [ "signing", "key encipherment", "server auth", "client auth" ], "expiry": "8760h" } } } }

字段说明

  • ca-config.json:可以定义多个 profiles,分别指定不同的过期时间、使用场景等参数;后续在签名证书时使用某个 profile;
  • signing:表示该证书可用于签名其它证书;生成的 ca.pem 证书中 CA=TRUE
  • server auth:表示client可以用该 CA 对server提供的证书进行验证;
  • client auth:表示server可以用该CA对client提供的证书进行验证;

创建 CA 证书签名请求

$ cat ca-csr.json { "CN": "kubernetes", "key": { "algo": "rsa", "size": 2048 }, "names": [ { "C": "CN", "ST": "BeiJing", "L": "BeiJing", "O": "k8s", "OU": "System" } ] }
  • “CN”:Common Name,kube-apiserver 从证书中提取该字段作为请求的用户名 (User Name);浏览器使用该字段验证网站是否合法;
  • “O”:Organization,kube-apiserver 从证书中提取该字段作为请求用户所属的组 (Group);

生成 CA 证书和私钥

$ cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca
$ ls ca* ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem

创建 kubernetes 证书

创建 kubernetes 证书签名请求

$ cat kubernetes-csr.json { "CN": "kubernetes", "hosts": [ "127.0.0.1", "172.20.0.112", "172.20.0.113", "172.20.0.114", "172.20.0.115", "10.254.0.1", "kubernetes", "kubernetes.default", "kubernetes.default.svc", "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster", "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local" ], "key": { "algo": "rsa", "size": 2048 }, "names": [ { "C": "CN", "ST": "BeiJing", "L": "BeiJing", "O": "k8s", "OU": "System" } ] }
  • 如果 hosts 字段不为空则需要指定授权使用该证书的 IP 或域名列表,由于该证书后续被 etcd 集群和 kubernetes master集群使用,所以上面分别指定了 etcd 集群、kubernetes master 集群的主机 IP 和 kubernetes 服务的服务 IP(一般是kue-apiserver 指定的 service-cluster-ip-range 网段的第一个IP,如 10.254.0.1。

生成 kubernetes 证书和私钥

$ cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kubernetes
$ ls kuberntes* kubernetes.csr  kubernetes-csr.json  kubernetes-key.pem  kubernetes.pem

或者直接在命令行上指定相关参数:

$ echo '{"CN":"kubernetes","hosts":[""],"key":{"algo":"rsa","size":2048}}' | cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes -hostname="127.0.0.1,172.20.0.112,172.20.0.113,172.20.0.114,172.20.0.115,kubernetes,kubernetes.default" - | cfssljson -bare kubernetes

创建 admin 证书

创建 admin 证书签名请求

$ cat admin-csr.json { "CN": "admin", "hosts": [], "key": { "algo": "rsa", "size": 2048 }, "names": [ { "C": "CN", "ST": "BeiJing", "L": "BeiJing", "O": "system:masters", "OU": "System" } ] }
  • 后续 kube-apiserver 使用 RBAC 对客户端(如 kubeletkube-proxyPod)请求进行授权;
  • kube-apiserver 预定义了一些 RBAC 使用的 RoleBindings,如 cluster-admin 将 Group system:masters与 Rolecluster-admin 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用kube-apiserver 的所有 API的权限;
  • OU 指定该证书的 Group 为 system:masterskubelet 使用该证书访问 kube-apiserver 时 ,由于证书被 CA 签名,所以认证通过,同时由于证书用户组为经过预授权的 system:masters,所以被授予访问所有 API 的权限;

生成 admin 证书和私钥

$ cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin
$ ls admin* admin.csr  admin-csr.json  admin-key.pem  admin.pem

创建 kube-proxy 证书

创建 kube-proxy 证书签名请求

$ cat kube-proxy-csr.json { "CN": "system:kube-proxy", "hosts": [], "key": { "algo": "rsa", "size": 2048 }, "names": [ { "C": "CN", "ST": "BeiJing", "L": "BeiJing", "O": "k8s", "OU": "System" } ] }
  • CN 指定该证书的 User 为 system:kube-proxy
  • kube-apiserver 预定义的 RoleBinding cluster-admin 将User system:kube-proxy 与 Role system:node-proxier 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用 kube-apiserver Proxy 相关 API 的权限;

生成 kube-proxy 客户端证书和私钥

$ cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes  kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
$ ls kube-proxy* kube-proxy.csr  kube-proxy-csr.json  kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem

校验证书

以 kubernetes 证书为例

使用 opsnssl 命令

$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in kubernetes.pem ... Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=CN, ST=BeiJing, L=BeiJing, O=k8s, OU=System, CN=Kubernetes Validity Not Before: Apr 5 05:36:00 2017 GMT Not After : Apr 5 05:36:00 2018 GMT Subject: C=CN, ST=BeiJing, L=BeiJing, O=k8s, OU=System, CN=kubernetes ... X509v3 extensions: X509v3 Key Usage: critical Digital Signature, Key Encipherment X509v3 Extended Key Usage: TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:FALSE
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: DD:52:04:43:10:13:A9:29:24:17:3A:0E:D7:14:DB:36:F8:6C:E0:E0
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:44:04:3B:60:BD:69:78:14:68:AF:A0:41:13:F6:17:07:13:63:58:CD

            X509v3 Subject Alternative Name: DNS:kubernetes, DNS:kubernetes.default, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster, DNS:kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local, IP Address:127.0.0.1, IP Address:172.20.0.112, IP Address:172.20.0.113, IP Address:172.20.0.114, IP Address:172.20.0.115, IP Address:10.254.0.1 ...
  • 确认 Issuer 字段的内容和 ca-csr.json 一致;
  • 确认 Subject 字段的内容和 kubernetes-csr.json 一致;
  • 确认 X509v3 Subject Alternative Name 字段的内容和 kubernetes-csr.json 一致;
  • 确认 X509v3 Key Usage、Extended Key Usage 字段的内容和 ca-config.json 中 kubernetes profile 一致;

使用 cfssl-certinfo 命令

$ cfssl-certinfo -cert kubernetes.pem ... { "subject": { "common_name": "kubernetes", "country": "CN", "organization": "k8s", "organizational_unit": "System", "locality": "BeiJing", "province": "BeiJing", "names": [ "CN", "BeiJing", "BeiJing", "k8s", "System", "kubernetes" ] }, "issuer": { "common_name": "Kubernetes", "country": "CN", "organization": "k8s", "organizational_unit": "System", "locality": "BeiJing", "province": "BeiJing", "names": [ "CN", "BeiJing", "BeiJing", "k8s", "System", "Kubernetes" ] }, "serial_number": "174360492872423263473151971632292895707129022309", "sans": [ "kubernetes", "kubernetes.default", "kubernetes.default.svc", "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster", "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local", "127.0.0.1", "10.64.3.7", "10.254.0.1" ], "not_before": "2017-04-05T05:36:00Z", "not_after": "2018-04-05T05:36:00Z", "sigalg": "SHA256WithRSA", ...

分发证书

将生成的证书和秘钥文件(后缀名为.pem)拷贝到所有机器的 /etc/kubernetes/ssl 目录下备用;

$ sudo mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ssl
$ sudo cp *.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl

参考

二、创建 kubeconfig 文件

kubeletkube-proxy 等 Node 机器上的进程与 Master 机器的 kube-apiserver 进程通信时需要认证和授权;

kubernetes 1.4 开始支持由 kube-apiserver 为客户端生成 TLS 证书的 TLS Bootstrapping 功能,这样就不需要为每个客户端生成证书了;该功能当前仅支持为 kubelet 生成证书;

创建 TLS Bootstrapping Token

Token auth file

Token可以是任意的包涵128 bit的字符串,可以使用安全的随机数发生器生成。

export BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN=$(head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' ') cat > token.csv <<EOF ${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN},kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap" EOF

后三行是一句,直接复制上面的脚本运行即可。

将token.csv发到所有机器(Master 和 Node)的 /etc/kubernetes/ 目录。

$cp token.csv /etc/kubernetes/

创建 kubelet bootstrapping kubeconfig 文件

$ cd /etc/kubernetes
$ export KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.20.0.113:6443" $ # 设置集群参数 $ kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \ --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \ --embed-certs=true \ --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \ --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
$ # 设置客户端认证参数 $ kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap \ --token=${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN} \ --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
$ # 设置上下文参数 $ kubectl config set-context default \ --cluster=kubernetes \ --user=kubelet-bootstrap \ --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
$ # 设置默认上下文 $ kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
  • --embed-certs 为 true 时表示将 certificate-authority 证书写入到生成的 bootstrap.kubeconfig 文件中;
  • 设置客户端认证参数时没有指定秘钥和证书,后续由 kube-apiserver 自动生成;

创建 kube-proxy kubeconfig 文件

$ export KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.20.0.113:6443" $ # 设置集群参数 $ kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \ --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \ --embed-certs=true \ --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \ --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
$ # 设置客户端认证参数 $ kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \ --client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-proxy.pem \ --client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-proxy-key.pem \ --embed-certs=true \ --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
$ # 设置上下文参数 $ kubectl config set-context default \ --cluster=kubernetes \ --user=kube-proxy \ --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
$ # 设置默认上下文 $ kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
  • 设置集群参数和客户端认证参数时 --embed-certs 都为 true,这会将 certificate-authorityclient-certificate 和client-key 指向的证书文件内容写入到生成的 kube-proxy.kubeconfig 文件中;
  • kube-proxy.pem 证书中 CN 为 system:kube-proxykube-apiserver 预定义的 RoleBinding cluster-admin 将Usersystem:kube-proxy 与 Role system:node-proxier 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用 kube-apiserver Proxy 相关 API 的权限;

分发 kubeconfig 文件

将两个 kubeconfig 文件分发到所有 Node 机器的 /etc/kubernetes/ 目录

$ cp bootstrap.kubeconfig kube-proxy.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/

三、创建高可用 etcd 集群

kuberntes 系统使用 etcd 存储所有数据,本文档介绍部署一个三节点高可用 etcd 集群的步骤,这三个节点复用 kubernetes master 机器,分别命名为sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.comsz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.comsz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com

  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.113
  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.114
  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.115

TLS 认证文件

需要为 etcd 集群创建加密通信的 TLS 证书,这里复用以前创建的 kubernetes 证书

$ cp ca.pem kubernetes-key.pem kubernetes.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl
  • kubernetes 证书的 hosts 字段列表中包含上面三台机器的 IP,否则后续证书校验会失败;

下载二进制文件

到 https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases 页面下载最新版本的二进制文件

$ https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases/download/v3.1.5/etcd-v3.1.5-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ tar -xvf etcd-v3.1.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ sudo mv etcd-v3.1.4-linux-amd64/etcd* /root/local/bin

创建 etcd 的 systemd unit 文件

注意替换 ETCD_NAME 和 INTERNAL_IP 变量的值;

$ export ETCD_NAME=sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com
$ export INTERNAL_IP=172.20.0.113 $ sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd /var/lib/etcd
$ cat > etcd.service <<EOF [Unit] Description=Etcd Server After=network.target After=network-online.target Wants=network-online.target Documentation=https://github.com/coreos [Service] Type=notify WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/etcd/ EnvironmentFile=-/etc/etcd/etcd.conf ExecStart=/root/local/bin/etcd \\  --name ${ETCD_NAME} \\  --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \\  --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \\  --peer-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \\  --peer-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \\  --trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\  --peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\  --initial-advertise-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\  --listen-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\  --listen-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379,https://127.0.0.1:2379 \\  --advertise-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379 \\  --initial-cluster-token etcd-cluster-0 \\  --initial-cluster sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.113:2380,sz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.114:2380,sz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.115:2380 \\  --initial-cluster-state new \\  --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd Restart=on-failure RestartSec=5 LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target EOF
  • 指定 etcd 的工作目录为 /var/lib/etcd,数据目录为 /var/lib/etcd,需在启动服务前创建这两个目录;
  • 为了保证通信安全,需要指定 etcd 的公私钥(cert-file和key-file)、Peers 通信的公私钥和 CA 证书(peer-cert-file、peer-key-file、peer-trusted-ca-file)、客户端的CA证书(trusted-ca-file);
  • 创建 kubernetes.pem 证书时使用的 kubernetes-csr.json 文件的 hosts 字段包含所有 etcd 节点的 INTERNAL_IP,否则证书校验会出错;
  • --initial-cluster-state 值为 new 时,--name 的参数值必须位于 --initial-cluster 列表中;

完整 unit 文件见:etcd.service

启动 etcd 服务

$ sudo mv etcd.service /etc/systemd/system/ $ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable etcd
$ sudo systemctl start etcd
$ systemctl status etcd

在所有的 kubernetes master 节点重复上面的步骤,直到所有机器的 etcd 服务都已启动。

验证服务

在任一 kubernetes master 机器上执行如下命令:

$ etcdctl \ --ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \ --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \ --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \
  cluster-health 2017-04-11 15:17:09.082250 I | warning: ignoring ServerName for user-provided CA for backwards compatibility is deprecated 2017-04-11 15:17:09.083681 I | warning: ignoring ServerName for user-provided CA for backwards compatibility is deprecated
member 9a2ec640d25672e5 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.115:2379 member bc6f27ae3be34308 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.114:2379 member e5c92ea26c4edba0 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.113:2379 cluster is healthy

结果最后一行为 cluster is healthy 时表示集群服务正常。

三、创建高可用 etcd 集群

kuberntes 系统使用 etcd 存储所有数据,本文档介绍部署一个三节点高可用 etcd 集群的步骤,这三个节点复用 kubernetes master 机器,分别命名为sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.comsz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.comsz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com

  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.113
  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.114
  • sz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com:172.20.0.115

TLS 认证文件

需要为 etcd 集群创建加密通信的 TLS 证书,这里复用以前创建的 kubernetes 证书

$ cp ca.pem kubernetes-key.pem kubernetes.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl
  • kubernetes 证书的 hosts 字段列表中包含上面三台机器的 IP,否则后续证书校验会失败;

下载二进制文件

到 https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases 页面下载最新版本的二进制文件

$ https://github.com/coreos/etcd/releases/download/v3.1.5/etcd-v3.1.5-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ tar -xvf etcd-v3.1.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ sudo mv etcd-v3.1.4-linux-amd64/etcd* /root/local/bin

创建 etcd 的 systemd unit 文件

注意替换 ETCD_NAME 和 INTERNAL_IP 变量的值;

$ export ETCD_NAME=sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com
$ export INTERNAL_IP=172.20.0.113 $ sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/etcd /var/lib/etcd
$ cat > etcd.service <<EOF [Unit] Description=Etcd Server After=network.target After=network-online.target Wants=network-online.target Documentation=https://github.com/coreos [Service] Type=notify WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/etcd/ EnvironmentFile=-/etc/etcd/etcd.conf ExecStart=/root/local/bin/etcd \\  --name ${ETCD_NAME} \\  --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \\  --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \\  --peer-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \\  --peer-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \\  --trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\  --peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\  --initial-advertise-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\  --listen-peer-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2380 \\  --listen-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379,https://127.0.0.1:2379 \\  --advertise-client-urls https://${INTERNAL_IP}:2379 \\  --initial-cluster-token etcd-cluster-0 \\  --initial-cluster sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.113:2380,sz-pg-oam-docker-test-002.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.114:2380,sz-pg-oam-docker-test-003.tendcloud.com=https://172.20.0.115:2380 \\  --initial-cluster-state new \\  --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd Restart=on-failure RestartSec=5 LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target EOF
  • 指定 etcd 的工作目录为 /var/lib/etcd,数据目录为 /var/lib/etcd,需在启动服务前创建这两个目录;
  • 为了保证通信安全,需要指定 etcd 的公私钥(cert-file和key-file)、Peers 通信的公私钥和 CA 证书(peer-cert-file、peer-key-file、peer-trusted-ca-file)、客户端的CA证书(trusted-ca-file);
  • 创建 kubernetes.pem 证书时使用的 kubernetes-csr.json 文件的 hosts 字段包含所有 etcd 节点的 INTERNAL_IP,否则证书校验会出错;
  • --initial-cluster-state 值为 new 时,--name 的参数值必须位于 --initial-cluster 列表中;

完整 unit 文件见:etcd.service

启动 etcd 服务

$ sudo mv etcd.service /etc/systemd/system/ $ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl enable etcd
$ sudo systemctl start etcd
$ systemctl status etcd

在所有的 kubernetes master 节点重复上面的步骤,直到所有机器的 etcd 服务都已启动。

验证服务

在任一 kubernetes master 机器上执行如下命令:

$ etcdctl \ --ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \ --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem \ --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem \
  cluster-health 2017-04-11 15:17:09.082250 I | warning: ignoring ServerName for user-provided CA for backwards compatibility is deprecated 2017-04-11 15:17:09.083681 I | warning: ignoring ServerName for user-provided CA for backwards compatibility is deprecated
member 9a2ec640d25672e5 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.115:2379 member bc6f27ae3be34308 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.114:2379 member e5c92ea26c4edba0 is healthy: got healthy result from https://172.20.0.113:2379 cluster is healthy

结果最后一行为 cluster is healthy 时表示集群服务正常。

四、下载和配置 kubectl 命令行工具

本文档介绍下载和配置 kubernetes 集群命令行工具 kubelet 的步骤。

下载 kubectl

$ wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.6.0/kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ tar -xzvf kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ cp kubernetes/client/bin/kube* /usr/bin/ $ chmod a+x /usr/bin/kube*

创建 kubectl kubeconfig 文件

$ export KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.20.0.113:6443" $ # 设置集群参数 $ kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \ --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \ --embed-certs=true \ --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} $ # 设置客户端认证参数 $ kubectl config set-credentials admin \ --client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/admin.pem \ --embed-certs=true \ --client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/admin-key.pem
$ # 设置上下文参数 $ kubectl config set-context kubernetes \ --cluster=kubernetes \ --user=admin
$ # 设置默认上下文 $ kubectl config use-context kubernetes
  • admin.pem 证书 OU 字段值为 system:masterskube-apiserver 预定义的 RoleBinding cluster-admin 将 Groupsystem:masters 与 Role cluster-admin 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用kube-apiserver 相关 API 的权限;
  • 生成的 kubeconfig 被保存到 ~/.kube/config 文件;

五、部署高可用 kubernetes master 集群

kubernetes master 节点包含的组件:

  • kube-apiserver
  • kube-scheduler
  • kube-controller-manager

目前这三个组件需要部署在同一台机器上。

  • kube-schedulerkube-controller-manager 和 kube-apiserver 三者的功能紧密相关;
  • 同时只能有一个 kube-schedulerkube-controller-manager 进程处于工作状态,如果运行多个,则需要通过选举产生一个 leader;

本文档记录部署一个三个节点的高可用 kubernetes master 集群步骤。(后续创建一个 load balancer 来代理访问 kube-apiserver 的请求)

TLS 证书文件

pem和token.csv证书文件我们在TLS证书和秘钥这一步中已经创建过了。我们再检查一下。

$ ls /etc/kubernetes/ssl
admin-key.pem  admin.pem  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem  kubernetes-key.pem  kubernetes.pem

下载最新版本的二进制文件

有两种下载方式

方式一

从 github release 页面 下载发布版 tarball,解压后再执行下载脚本

$ wget https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/releases/download/v1.6.0/kubernetes.tar.gz $ tar -xzvf kubernetes.tar.gz ... $ cd kubernetes
$ ./cluster/get-kube-binaries.sh ...

方式二

从 CHANGELOG页面 下载 client 或 server tarball 文件

server 的 tarball kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz 已经包含了 client(kubectl) 二进制文件,所以不用单独下载kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz文件;

$ # wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.6.0/kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.6.0/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ tar -xzvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz ... $ cd kubernetes
$ tar -xzvf  kubernetes-src.tar.gz

将二进制文件拷贝到指定路径

$ cp -r server/bin/{kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,kubectl,kube-proxy,kubelet} /root/local/bin/

配置和启动 kube-apiserver

创建 kube-apiserver的service配置文件

serivce配置文件/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service内容:

[Unit] Description=Kubernetes API Service Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes After=network.target After=etcd.service [Service] EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/config EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/apiserver ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-apiserver \
	    $KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR \
	    $KUBE_LOG_LEVEL \
	    $KUBE_ETCD_SERVERS \
	    $KUBE_API_ADDRESS \
	    $KUBE_API_PORT \
	    $KUBELET_PORT \
	    $KUBE_ALLOW_PRIV \
	    $KUBE_SERVICE_ADDRESSES \
	    $KUBE_ADMISSION_CONTROL \
	    $KUBE_API_ARGS Restart=on-failure Type=notify LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

/etc/kubernetes/config文件的内容为:

### # kubernetes system config # # The following values are used to configure various aspects of all # kubernetes services, including # #   kube-apiserver.service #   kube-controller-manager.service #   kube-scheduler.service #   kubelet.service #   kube-proxy.service # logging to stderr means we get it in the systemd journal KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR="--logtostderr=true" # journal message level, 0 is debug KUBE_LOG_LEVEL="--v=0" # Should this cluster be allowed to run privileged docker containers KUBE_ALLOW_PRIV="--allow-privileged=true" # How the controller-manager, scheduler, and proxy find the apiserver #KUBE_MASTER="--master=http://sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com:8080" KUBE_MASTER="--master=http://172.20.0.113:8080"

该配置文件同时被kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager、kube-scheduler、kubelet、kube-proxy使用。

apiserver配置文件/etc/kubernetes/apiserver内容为:

### ## kubernetes system config ## ## The following values are used to configure the kube-apiserver ## # ## The address on the local server to listen to. #KUBE_API_ADDRESS="--insecure-bind-address=sz-pg-oam-docker-test-001.tendcloud.com" KUBE_API_ADDRESS="--advertise-address=172.20.0.113 --bind-address=172.20.0.113 --insecure-bind-address=172.20.0.113" # ## The port on the local server to listen on. #KUBE_API_PORT="--port=8080" # ## Port minions listen on #KUBELET_PORT="--kubelet-port=10250" # ## Comma separated list of nodes in the etcd cluster KUBE_ETCD_SERVERS="--etcd-servers=https://172.20.0.113:2379,172.20.0.114:2379,172.20.0.115:2379" # ## Address range to use for services KUBE_SERVICE_ADDRESSES="--service-cluster-ip-range=10.254.0.0/16" # ## default admission control policies KUBE_ADMISSION_CONTROL="--admission-control=ServiceAccount,NamespaceLifecycle,NamespaceExists,LimitRanger,ResourceQuota" # ## Add your own! KUBE_API_ARGS="--authorization-mode=RBAC --runtime-config=rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1 --kubelet-https=true --experimental-bootstrap-token-auth --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv --service-node-port-range=30000-32767 --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem --etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem --etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem --etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem --enable-swagger-ui=true --apiserver-count=3 --audit-log-maxage=30 --audit-log-maxbackup=3 --audit-log-maxsize=100 --audit-log-path=/var/lib/audit.log --event-ttl=1h"
  • --authorization-mode=RBAC 指定在安全端口使用 RBAC 授权模式,拒绝未通过授权的请求;
  • kube-scheduler、kube-controller-manager 一般和 kube-apiserver 部署在同一台机器上,它们使用非安全端口和 kube-apiserver通信;
  • kubelet、kube-proxy、kubectl 部署在其它 Node 节点上,如果通过安全端口访问 kube-apiserver,则必须先通过 TLS 证书认证,再通过 RBAC 授权;
  • kube-proxy、kubectl 通过在使用的证书里指定相关的 User、Group 来达到通过 RBAC 授权的目的;
  • 如果使用了 kubelet TLS Boostrap 机制,则不能再指定 --kubelet-certificate-authority--kubelet-client-certificate 和 --kubelet-client-key 选项,否则后续 kube-apiserver 校验 kubelet 证书时出现 ”x509: certificate signed by unknown authority“ 错误;
  • --admission-control 值必须包含 ServiceAccount
  • --bind-address 不能为 127.0.0.1
  • runtime-config配置为rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1,表示运行时的apiVersion;
  • --service-cluster-ip-range 指定 Service Cluster IP 地址段,该地址段不能路由可达;
  • 缺省情况下 kubernetes 对象保存在 etcd /registry 路径下,可以通过 --etcd-prefix 参数进行调整;

完整 unit 见 kube-apiserver.service

启动kube-apiserver

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl enable kube-apiserver
$ systemctl start kube-apiserver
$ systemctl status kube-apiserver

配置和启动 kube-controller-manager

创建 kube-controller-manager的serivce配置文件

文件路径/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service

Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes [Service] EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/config EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-controller-manager \
	    $KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR \
	    $KUBE_LOG_LEVEL \
	    $KUBE_MASTER \
	    $KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_ARGS Restart=on-failure LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

配置文件/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager

### # The following values are used to configure the kubernetes controller-manager # defaults from config and apiserver should be adequate # Add your own! KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_ARGS="--address=127.0.0.1 --service-cluster-ip-range=10.254.0.0/16 --cluster-name=kubernetes --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem --leader-elect=true"
  • --service-cluster-ip-range 参数指定 Cluster 中 Service 的CIDR范围,该网络在各 Node 间必须路由不可达,必须和 kube-apiserver 中的参数一致;
  • --cluster-signing-* 指定的证书和私钥文件用来签名为 TLS BootStrap 创建的证书和私钥;
  • --root-ca-file 用来对 kube-apiserver 证书进行校验,指定该参数后,才会在Pod 容器的 ServiceAccount 中放置该 CA 证书文件
  • --address 值必须为 127.0.0.1,因为当前 kube-apiserver 期望 scheduler 和 controller-manager 在同一台机器,否则:
    $ kubectl get componentstatuses
    NAME                 STATUS      MESSAGE                                                                                        ERROR
    scheduler Unhealthy Get http://127.0.0.1:10251/healthz: dial tcp 127.0.0.1:10251: getsockopt: connection refused  controller-manager Healthy ok                                                                                             
    etcd-2 Unhealthy Get http://172.20.0.113:2379/health: malformed HTTP response "\x15\x03\x01\x00\x02\x02"  etcd-0 Healthy {"health": "true"} etcd-1 Healthy {"health": "true"}

    参考:https://github.com/kubernetes-incubator/bootkube/issues/64

完整 unit 见 kube-controller-manager.service

启动 kube-controller-manager

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
$ systemctl start kube-controller-manager

配置和启动 kube-scheduler

创建 kube-scheduler的serivce配置文件

文件路径/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.serivce

[Unit] Description=Kubernetes Scheduler Plugin Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes [Service] EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/config EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/scheduler ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-scheduler \
            $KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR \
            $KUBE_LOG_LEVEL \
            $KUBE_MASTER \
            $KUBE_SCHEDULER_ARGS Restart=on-failure LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

配置文件/etc/kubernetes/scheduler

### # kubernetes scheduler config # default config should be adequate # Add your own! KUBE_SCHEDULER_ARGS="--leader-elect=true --address=127.0.0.1"
  • --address 值必须为 127.0.0.1,因为当前 kube-apiserver 期望 scheduler 和 controller-manager 在同一台机器;

完整 unit 见 kube-scheduler.service

启动 kube-scheduler

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl enable kube-scheduler
$ systemctl start kube-scheduler

验证 master 节点功能

$ kubectl get componentstatuses
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
scheduler Healthy ok                   
controller-manager Healthy ok                   
etcd-0 Healthy {"health": "true"} etcd-1 Healthy {"health": "true"} etcd-2 Healthy {"health": "true"}

六、部署kubernetes node节点

kubernetes node 节点包含如下组件:

  • Flanneld:参考我之前写的文章Kubernetes基于Flannel的网络配置,之前没有配置TLS,现在需要在serivce配置文件中增加TLS配置。
  • Docker1.12.5:docker的安装很简单,这里也不说了。
  • kubelet
  • kube-proxy

下面着重讲kubeletkube-proxy的安装,同时还要将之前安装的flannel集成TLS验证。

目录和文件

我们再检查一下三个节点上,经过前几步操作生成的配置文件。

$ ls /etc/kubernetes/ssl
admin-key.pem  admin.pem  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem  kubernetes-key.pem  kubernetes.pem
$ ls /etc/kubernetes/ apiserver  bootstrap.kubeconfig  config  controller-manager  kubelet  kube-proxy.kubeconfig  proxy  scheduler  ssl  token.csv

配置Flanneld

参考我之前写的文章Kubernetes基于Flannel的网络配置,之前没有配置TLS,现在需要在serivce配置文件中增加TLS配置。

service配置文件/usr/lib/systemd/system/flanneld.service

[Unit] Description=Flanneld overlay address etcd agent After=network.target After=network-online.target Wants=network-online.target After=etcd.service Before=docker.service [Service] Type=notify EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/flanneld EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/docker-network ExecStart=/usr/bin/flanneld-start $FLANNEL_OPTIONS ExecStartPost=/usr/libexec/flannel/mk-docker-opts.sh -k DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS -d /run/flannel/docker Restart=on-failure [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target RequiredBy=docker.service

/etc/sysconfig/flanneld配置文件。

# Flanneld configuration options  # etcd url location.  Point this to the server where etcd runs FLANNEL_ETCD_ENDPOINTS="https://172.20.0.113:2379,https://172.20.0.114:2379,https://172.20.0.115:2379" # etcd config key.  This is the configuration key that flannel queries # For address range assignment FLANNEL_ETCD_PREFIX="/kube-centos/network" # Any additional options that you want to pass FLANNEL_OPTIONS="-etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem -etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes.pem -etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubernetes-key.pem"

在FLANNEL_OPTIONS中增加TLS的配置。

安装和配置 kubelet

kubelet 启动时向 kube-apiserver 发送 TLS bootstrapping 请求,需要先将 bootstrap token 文件中的 kubelet-bootstrap 用户赋予 system:node-bootstrapper cluster 角色(role), 然后 kubelet 才能有权限创建认证请求(certificate signing requests):

$ cd /etc/kubernetes
$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \ --clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \ --user=kubelet-bootstrap
  • --user=kubelet-bootstrap 是在 /etc/kubernetes/token.csv 文件中指定的用户名,同时也写入了/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig 文件;

下载最新的 kubelet 和 kube-proxy 二进制文件

$ wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.6.0/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz $ tar -xzvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
$ cd kubernetes
$ tar -xzvf  kubernetes-src.tar.gz
$ cp -r ./server/bin/{kube-proxy,kubelet} /usr/bin/

创建 kubelet 的service配置文件

文件位置/usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.serivce

[Unit] Description=Kubernetes Kubelet Server Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes After=docker.service Requires=docker.service [Service] WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/kubelet EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/config EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/kubelet ExecStart=/usr/bin/kubelet \
            $KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR \
            $KUBE_LOG_LEVEL \
            $KUBELET_API_SERVER \
            $KUBELET_ADDRESS \
            $KUBELET_PORT \
            $KUBELET_HOSTNAME \
            $KUBE_ALLOW_PRIV \
            $KUBELET_POD_INFRA_CONTAINER \
            $KUBELET_ARGS Restart=on-failure [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

kubelet的配置文件/etc/kubernetes/kubelet。其中的IP地址更改为你的每台node节点的IP地址。

### ## kubernetes kubelet (minion) config # ## The address for the info server to serve on (set to 0.0.0.0 or "" for all interfaces) KUBELET_ADDRESS="--address=172.20.0.113" # ## The port for the info server to serve on #KUBELET_PORT="--port=10250" # ## You may leave this blank to use the actual hostname KUBELET_HOSTNAME="--hostname-override=172.20.0.113" # ## location of the api-server KUBELET_API_SERVER="--api-servers=http://172.20.0.113:8080" # ## pod infrastructure container KUBELET_POD_INFRA_CONTAINER="--pod-infra-container-image=sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/pod-infrastructure:rhel7" # ## Add your own! KUBELET_ARGS="--cgroup-driver=systemd --cluster-dns=10.254.0.2 --experimental-bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig --require-kubeconfig --cert-dir=/etc/kubernetes/ssl --cluster-domain=cluster.local. --hairpin-mode promiscuous-bridge --serialize-image-pulls=false"
  • --address 不能设置为 127.0.0.1,否则后续 Pods 访问 kubelet 的 API 接口时会失败,因为 Pods 访问的 127.0.0.1 指向自己而不是 kubelet;
  • 如果设置了 --hostname-override 选项,则 kube-proxy 也需要设置该选项,否则会出现找不到 Node 的情况;
  • --experimental-bootstrap-kubeconfig 指向 bootstrap kubeconfig 文件,kubelet 使用该文件中的用户名和 token 向 kube-apiserver 发送 TLS Bootstrapping 请求;
  • 管理员通过了 CSR 请求后,kubelet 自动在 --cert-dir 目录创建证书和私钥文件(kubelet-client.crt 和 kubelet-client.key),然后写入 --kubeconfig 文件;
  • 建议在 --kubeconfig 配置文件中指定 kube-apiserver 地址,如果未指定 --api-servers 选项,则必须指定 --require-kubeconfig 选项后才从配置文件中读取 kube-apiserver 的地址,否则 kubelet 启动后将找不到 kube-apiserver (日志中提示未找到 API Server),kubectl get nodes 不会返回对应的 Node 信息;
  • --cluster-dns 指定 kubedns 的 Service IP(可以先分配,后续创建 kubedns 服务时指定该 IP),--cluster-domain 指定域名后缀,这两个参数同时指定后才会生效;

完整 unit 见 kubelet.service

启动kublet

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl enable kubelet
$ systemctl start kubelet
$ systemctl status kubelet

通过 kublet 的 TLS 证书请求

kubelet 首次启动时向 kube-apiserver 发送证书签名请求,必须通过后 kubernetes 系统才会将该 Node 加入到集群。

查看未授权的 CSR 请求

$ kubectl get csr
NAME        AGE       REQUESTOR           CONDITION
csr-2b308 4m kubelet-bootstrap Pending $ kubectl get nodes No resources found.

通过 CSR 请求

$ kubectl certificate approve csr-2b308 certificatesigningrequest "csr-2b308" approved
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS    AGE       VERSION 10.64.3.7 Ready 49m v1.6.1

自动生成了 kubelet kubeconfig 文件和公私钥

$ ls -l /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig -rw------- 1 root root 2284 Apr 7 02:07 /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig
$ ls -l /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet* -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1046 Apr 7 02:07 /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet-client.crt -rw------- 1 root root 227 Apr 7 02:04 /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet-client.key -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1103 Apr 7 02:07 /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet.crt -rw------- 1 root root 1675 Apr 7 02:07 /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet.key

配置 kube-proxy

创建 kube-proxy 的service配置文件

文件路径/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service

[Unit] Description=Kubernetes Kube-Proxy Server Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes After=network.target [Service] EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/config EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/proxy ExecStart=/usr/bin/kube-proxy \
	    $KUBE_LOGTOSTDERR \
	    $KUBE_LOG_LEVEL \
	    $KUBE_MASTER \
	    $KUBE_PROXY_ARGS Restart=on-failure LimitNOFILE=65536 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

kube-proxy配置文件/etc/kubernetes/proxy

### # kubernetes proxy config # default config should be adequate # Add your own! KUBE_PROXY_ARGS="--bind-address=172.20.0.113 --hostname-override=172.20.0.113 --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig --cluster-cidr=10.254.0.0/16"
  • --hostname-override 参数值必须与 kubelet 的值一致,否则 kube-proxy 启动后会找不到该 Node,从而不会创建任何 iptables 规则;
  • kube-proxy 根据 --cluster-cidr 判断集群内部和外部流量,指定 --cluster-cidr 或 --masquerade-all选项后 kube-proxy 才会对访问 Service IP 的请求做 SNAT;
  • --kubeconfig 指定的配置文件嵌入了 kube-apiserver 的地址、用户名、证书、秘钥等请求和认证信息;
  • 预定义的 RoleBinding cluster-admin 将User system:kube-proxy 与 Role system:node-proxier 绑定,该 Role 授予了调用 kube-apiserver Proxy 相关 API 的权限;

完整 unit 见 kube-proxy.service

启动 kube-proxy

$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl enable kube-proxy
$ systemctl start kube-proxy
$ systemctl status kube-proxy

验证测试

我们创建一个niginx的service试一下集群是否可用。

$ kubectl run nginx --replicas=2 --labels="run=load-balancer-example" --image=sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/nginx:1.9 --port=80 deployment "nginx" created
$ kubectl expose deployment nginx --type=NodePort --name=example-service
service "example-service" exposed
$ kubectl describe svc example-service Name: example-service Namespace: default Labels: run=load-balancer-example Annotations: <none> Selector: run=load-balancer-example Type: NodePort IP: 10.254.62.207 Port: <unset> 80/TCP NodePort: <unset> 32724/TCP Endpoints: 172.30.60.2:80,172.30.94.2:80 Session Affinity: None Events: <none> $ curl "10.254.62.207:80" <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Welcome to nginx!</title> <style> body { width: 35em; margin: 0 auto; font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; } </style> </head> <body> <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1> <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and working. Further configuration is required.</p> <p>For online documentation and support please refer to <a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/> Commercial support is available at <a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p> <p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p> </body> </html>

访问172.20.0.113:32724172.20.0.114:32724或者172.20.0.115:32724都可以得到nginx的页面。

welcome-nginx

七、安装和配置 kubedns 插件

官方的yaml文件目录:kubernetes/cluster/addons/dns

该插件直接使用kubernetes部署,官方的配置文件中包含以下镜像:

gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1

我clone了上述镜像,上传到我的私有镜像仓库:

sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1

同时上传了一份到时速云备份:

index.tenxcloud.com/jimmy/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 index.tenxcloud.com/jimmy/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 index.tenxcloud.com/jimmy/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1

以下yaml配置文件中使用的是私有镜像仓库中的镜像。

kubedns-cm.yaml  
kubedns-sa.yaml  
kubedns-controller.yaml  
kubedns-svc.yaml

已经修改好的 yaml 文件见:dns

系统预定义的 RoleBinding

预定义的 RoleBinding system:kube-dns 将 kube-system 命名空间的 kube-dns ServiceAccount 与 system:kube-dns Role 绑定, 该 Role 具有访问 kube-apiserver DNS 相关 API 的权限;

$ kubectl get clusterrolebindings system:kube-dns -o yaml
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding metadata: annotations: rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true" creationTimestamp: 2017-04-11T11:20:42Z labels: kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-dns
  resourceVersion: "58" selfLink: /apis/rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1/clusterrolebindingssystem%3Akube-dns
  uid: e61f4d92-1ea8-11e7-8cd7-f4e9d49f8ed0
roleRef: apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole name: system:kube-dns
subjects: - kind: ServiceAccount name: kube-dns namespace: kube-system

kubedns-controller.yaml 中定义的 Pods 时使用了 kubedns-sa.yaml 文件定义的 kube-dnsServiceAccount,所以具有访问 kube-apiserver DNS 相关 API 的权限。

配置 kube-dns ServiceAccount

无需修改。

配置 kube-dns 服务

$ diff kubedns-svc.yaml.base kubedns-svc.yaml 30c30 < clusterIP: __PILLAR__DNS__SERVER__ --- > clusterIP: 10.254.0.2
  • spec.clusterIP = 10.254.0.2,即明确指定了 kube-dns Service IP,这个 IP 需要和 kubelet 的 --cluster-dns 参数值一致;

配置 kube-dns Deployment

$ diff kubedns-controller.yaml.base kubedns-controller.yaml 58c58 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:v1.14.1 88c88 < - --domain=__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__. --- > - --domain=cluster.local. 92c92 < __PILLAR__FEDERATIONS__DOMAIN__MAP__ --- > #__PILLAR__FEDERATIONS__DOMAIN__MAP__ 110c110 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:v1.14.1 129c129 < - --server=/__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__/127.0.0.1#10053 --- > - --server=/cluster.local./127.0.0.1#10053 148c148 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:v1.14.1 161,162c161,162 < - --probe=kubedns,127.0.0.1:10053,kubernetes.default.svc.__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__,5,A < - --probe=dnsmasq,127.0.0.1:53,kubernetes.default.svc.__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__,5,A --- > - --probe=kubedns,127.0.0.1:10053,kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local.,5,A > - --probe=dnsmasq,127.0.0.1:53,kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local.,5,A
  • 使用系统已经做了 RoleBinding 的 kube-dns ServiceAccount,该账户具有访问 kube-apiserver DNS 相关 API 的权限;

执行所有定义文件

$ pwd /root/kubedns
$ ls *.yaml
kubedns-cm.yaml  kubedns-controller.yaml  kubedns-sa.yaml  kubedns-svc.yaml
$ kubectl create -f .

检查 kubedns 功能

新建一个 Deployment

$ cat my-nginx.yaml
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment metadata: name: my-nginx
spec: replicas: 2 template: metadata: labels: run: my-nginx
    spec: containers: - name: my-nginx
        image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/nginx:1.9 ports: - containerPort: 80 $ kubectl create -f my-nginx.yaml

Export 该 Deployment, 生成 my-nginx 服务

$ kubectl expose deploy my-nginx
$ kubectl get services --all-namespaces |grep my-nginx default my-nginx 10.254.179.239 <none> 80/TCP 42m

创建另一个 Pod,查看 /etc/resolv.conf 是否包含 kubelet 配置的 --cluster-dns 和 --cluster-domain,是否能够将服务my-nginx 解析到 Cluster IP 10.254.179.239

$ kubectl create -f nginx-pod.yaml
$ kubectl exec nginx -i -t -- /bin/bash
root@nginx:/# cat /etc/resolv.conf nameserver 10.254.0.2 search default.svc.cluster.local. svc.cluster.local. cluster.local. tendcloud.com
options ndots:5 root@nginx:/# ping my-nginx PING my-nginx.default.svc.cluster.local (10.254.179.239): 56 data bytes
76 bytes from 119.147.223.109: Destination Net Unreachable
^C--- my-nginx.default.svc.cluster.local ping statistics ---

root@nginx:/# ping kubernetes PING kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local (10.254.0.1): 56 data bytes ^C--- kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local ping statistics --- 11 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss

root@nginx:/# ping kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local PING kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local (10.254.0.2): 56 data bytes ^C--- kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local ping statistics --- 6 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss

从结果来看,service名称可以正常解析。

八、配置和安装 dashboard

官方文件目录:kubernetes/cluster/addons/dashboard

我们使用的文件

$ ls *.yaml
dashboard-controller.yaml  dashboard-service.yaml dashboard-rbac.yaml

已经修改好的 yaml 文件见:dashboard

由于 kube-apiserver 启用了 RBAC 授权,而官方源码目录的 dashboard-controller.yaml 没有定义授权的 ServiceAccount,所以后续访问 kube-apiserver 的 API 时会被拒绝,web中提示:

Forbidden (403) User "system:serviceaccount:kube-system:default" cannot list jobs.batch in the namespace "default". (get jobs.batch)

增加了一个dashboard-rbac.yaml文件,定义一个名为 dashboard 的 ServiceAccount,然后将它和 Cluster Role view 绑定。

配置dashboard-service

$ diff dashboard-service.yaml.orig dashboard-service.yaml 10a11 > type: NodePort
  • 指定端口类型为 NodePort,这样外界可以通过地址 nodeIP:nodePort 访问 dashboard;

配置dashboard-controller

$ diff dashboard-controller.yaml.orig dashboard-controller.yaml 23c23 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.6.0 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.6.0

执行所有定义文件

$ pwd /root/kubernetes/cluster/addons/dashboard
$ ls *.yaml
dashboard-controller.yaml  dashboard-service.yaml
$ kubectl create -f . service "kubernetes-dashboard" created
deployment "kubernetes-dashboard" created

检查执行结果

查看分配的 NodePort

$ kubectl get services kubernetes-dashboard -n kube-system
NAME                   CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S) AGE
kubernetes-dashboard 10.254.224.130 <nodes> 80:30312/TCP 25s
  • NodePort 30312映射到 dashboard pod 80端口;

检查 controller

$ kubectl get deployment kubernetes-dashboard -n kube-system
NAME                   DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-dashboard 1 1 1 1 3m $ kubectl get pods -n kube-system | grep dashboard
kubernetes-dashboard-1339745653-pmn6z 1/1 Running 0 4m

访问dashboard

有以下三种方式:

  • kubernetes-dashboard 服务暴露了 NodePort,可以使用 http://NodeIP:nodePort 地址访问 dashboard;
  • 通过 kube-apiserver 访问 dashboard(https 6443端口和http 8080端口方式);
  • 通过 kubectl proxy 访问 dashboard:

通过 kubectl proxy 访问 dashboard

启动代理

$ kubectl proxy --address='172.20.0.113' --port=8086 --accept-hosts='^*$' Starting to serve on 172.20.0.113:8086
  • 需要指定 --accept-hosts 选项,否则浏览器访问 dashboard 页面时提示 “Unauthorized”;

浏览器访问 URL:http://172.20.0.113:8086/ui 自动跳转到:http://172.20.0.113:8086/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard/#/workload?namespace=default

通过 kube-apiserver 访问dashboard

获取集群服务地址列表

$ kubectl cluster-info Kubernetes master is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443 KubeDNS is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard

浏览器访问 URL:https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard(浏览器会提示证书验证,因为通过加密通道,以改方式访问的话,需要提前导入证书到你的计算机中)。这是我当时在这遇到的坑:通过 kube-apiserver 访问dashboard,提示User “system:anonymous” cannot proxy services in the namespace “kube-system”. #5,已经解决。

导入证书

将生成的admin.pem证书转换格式

openssl pkcs12 -export -in admin.pem -out admin.p12 -inkey admin-key.pem

将生成的admin.p12证书导入的你的电脑,导出的时候记住你设置的密码,导入的时候还要用到。

如果你不想使用https的话,可以直接访问insecure port 8080端口:http://172.20.0.113:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard

kubernetes-dashboard

由于缺少 Heapster 插件,当前 dashboard 不能展示 Pod、Nodes 的 CPU、内存等 metric 图形。

九、配置和安装 Heapster

到 heapster release 页面 下载最新版本的 heapster。

$ wget https://github.com/kubernetes/heapster/archive/v1.3.0.zip $ unzip v1.3.0.zip
$ mv v1.3.0.zip heapster-1.3.0

文件目录: heapster-1.3.0/deploy/kube-config/influxdb

$ cd heapster-1.3.0/deploy/kube-config/influxdb
$ ls *.yaml
grafana-deployment.yaml  grafana-service.yaml  heapster-deployment.yaml  heapster-service.yaml  influxdb-deployment.yaml  influxdb-service.yaml heapster-rbac.yaml

我们自己创建了heapster的rbac配置heapster-rbac.yaml

已经修改好的 yaml 文件见:heapster

配置 grafana-deployment

$ diff grafana-deployment.yaml.orig grafana-deployment.yaml 16c16 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.0.2 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.0.2 40,41c40,41 < # value: /api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/ < value: /
--- > value: /api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/ > #value: /
  • 如果后续使用 kube-apiserver 或者 kubectl proxy 访问 grafana dashboard,则必须将 GF_SERVER_ROOT_URL 设置为/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/,否则后续访问grafana时访问时提示找不到http://10.64.3.7:8086/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/api/dashboards/home 页面;

配置 heapster-deployment

$ diff heapster-deployment.yaml.orig heapster-deployment.yaml 16c16 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/heapster-amd64:v1.3.0-beta.1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/heapster-amd64:v1.3.0-beta.1

配置 influxdb-deployment

influxdb 官方建议使用命令行或 HTTP API 接口来查询数据库,从 v1.1.0 版本开始默认关闭 admin UI,将在后续版本中移除 admin UI 插件。

开启镜像中 admin UI的办法如下:先导出镜像中的 influxdb 配置文件,开启 admin 插件后,再将配置文件内容写入 ConfigMap,最后挂载到镜像中,达到覆盖原始配置的目的:

注意:manifests 目录已经提供了 修改后的 ConfigMap 定义文件

$ # 导出镜像中的 influxdb 配置文件 $ docker run --rm --entrypoint 'cat' -ti lvanneo/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.1.1 /etc/config.toml >config.toml.orig
$ cp config.toml.orig config.toml
$ # 修改:启用 admin 接口 $ vim config.toml
$ diff config.toml.orig config.toml 35c35 < enabled = false --- > enabled = true $ # 将修改后的配置写入到 ConfigMap 对象中 $ kubectl create configmap influxdb-config --from-file=config.toml -n kube-system
configmap "influxdb-config" created
$ # 将 ConfigMap 中的配置文件挂载到 Pod 中,达到覆盖原始配置的目的 $ diff influxdb-deployment.yaml.orig influxdb-deployment.yaml 16c16 < image: grc.io/google_containers/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.1.1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.1.1 19a20,21 > - mountPath: /etc/ > name: influxdb-config 22a25,27 > - name: influxdb-config > configMap: > name: influxdb-config

配置 monitoring-influxdb Service

$ diff influxdb-service.yaml.orig influxdb-service.yaml 12a13 > type: NodePort 15a17,20 > name: http > - port: 8083 > targetPort: 8083 > name: admin
  • 定义端口类型为 NodePort,额外增加了 admin 端口映射,用于后续浏览器访问 influxdb 的 admin UI 界面;

执行所有定义文件

$ pwd /root/heapster-1.3.0/deploy/kube-config/influxdb
$ ls *.yaml
grafana-service.yaml      heapster-rbac.yaml     influxdb-cm.yaml          influxdb-service.yaml
grafana-deployment.yaml  heapster-deployment.yaml  heapster-service.yaml  influxdb-deployment.yaml
$ kubectl create -f . deployment "monitoring-grafana" created
service "monitoring-grafana" created
deployment "heapster" created
serviceaccount "heapster" created
clusterrolebinding "heapster" created
service "heapster" created
configmap "influxdb-config" created
deployment "monitoring-influxdb" created
service "monitoring-influxdb" created

检查执行结果

检查 Deployment

$ kubectl get deployments -n kube-system | grep -E 'heapster|monitoring' heapster 1 1 1 1 2m monitoring-grafana 1 1 1 1 2m monitoring-influxdb 1 1 1 1 2m

检查 Pods

$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system | grep -E 'heapster|monitoring' heapster-110704576-gpg8v 1/1 Running 0 2m monitoring-grafana-2861879979-9z89f 1/1 Running 0 2m monitoring-influxdb-1411048194-lzrpc 1/1 Running 0 2m

检查 kubernets dashboard 界面,看是显示各 Nodes、Pods 的 CPU、内存、负载等利用率曲线图;

dashboard-heapster

访问 grafana

  1. 通过 kube-apiserver 访问:获取 monitoring-grafana 服务 URL
    $ kubectl cluster-info Kubernetes master is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443 Heapster is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/heapster KubeDNS is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard monitoring-grafana is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana monitoring-influxdb is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.

    浏览器访问 URL: http://172.20.0.113:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana

  2. 通过 kubectl proxy 访问:创建代理
    $ kubectl proxy --address='172.20.0.113' --port=8086 --accept-hosts='^*$' Starting to serve on 172.20.0.113:8086

    浏览器访问 URL:http://172.20.0.113:8086/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana

grafana

访问 influxdb admin UI

获取 influxdb http 8086 映射的 NodePort

$ kubectl get svc -n kube-system|grep influxdb
monitoring-influxdb 10.254.22.46 <nodes> 8086:32299/TCP,8083:30269/TCP 9m

通过 kube-apiserver 的非安全端口访问 influxdb 的 admin UI 界面:http://172.20.0.113:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb:8083/

在页面的 “Connection Settings” 的 Host 中输入 node IP, Port 中输入 8086 映射的 nodePort 如上面的 32299,点击 “Save” 即可(我的集群中的地址是172.20.0.113:32299):

kubernetes-influxdb-heapster

 

十、配置和安装 EFK

官方文件目录:cluster/addons/fluentd-elasticsearch

$ ls *.yaml
es-controller.yaml  es-service.yaml  fluentd-es-ds.yaml  kibana-controller.yaml  kibana-service.yaml efk-rbac.yaml

同样EFK服务也需要一个efk-rbac.yaml文件,配置serviceaccount为efk

已经修改好的 yaml 文件见:EFK

配置 es-controller.yaml

$ diff es-controller.yaml.orig es-controller.yaml 24c24 < - image: gcr.io/google_containers/elasticsearch:v2.4.1-2 --- > - image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/elasticsearch:v2.4.1-2

配置 es-service.yaml

无需配置;

配置 fluentd-es-ds.yaml

$ diff fluentd-es-ds.yaml.orig fluentd-es-ds.yaml 26c26 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/fluentd-elasticsearch:1.22 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/fluentd-elasticsearch:1.22

配置 kibana-controller.yaml

$ diff kibana-controller.yaml.orig kibana-controller.yaml 22c22 < image: gcr.io/google_containers/kibana:v4.6.1-1 --- > image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/kibana:v4.6.1-1

给 Node 设置标签

定义 DaemonSet fluentd-es-v1.22 时设置了 nodeSelector beta.kubernetes.io/fluentd-ds-ready=true ,所以需要在期望运行 fluentd 的 Node 上设置该标签;

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS    AGE       VERSION 172.20.0.113 Ready 1d v1.6.0 $ kubectl label nodes 172.20.0.113 beta.kubernetes.io/fluentd-ds-ready=true node "172.20.0.113" labeled

给其他两台node打上同样的标签。

执行定义文件

$ kubectl create -f . serviceaccount "efk" created
clusterrolebinding "efk" created
replicationcontroller "elasticsearch-logging-v1" created
service "elasticsearch-logging" created
daemonset "fluentd-es-v1.22" created
deployment "kibana-logging" created
service "kibana-logging" created

检查执行结果

$ kubectl get deployment -n kube-system|grep kibana
kibana-logging 1 1 1 1 2m $ kubectl get pods -n kube-system|grep -E 'elasticsearch|fluentd|kibana' elasticsearch-logging-v1-mlstp 1/1 Running 0 1m elasticsearch-logging-v1-nfbbf 1/1 Running 0 1m fluentd-es-v1.22-31sm0 1/1 Running 0 1m fluentd-es-v1.22-bpgqs 1/1 Running 0 1m fluentd-es-v1.22-qmn7h 1/1 Running 0 1m kibana-logging-1432287342-0gdng 1/1 Running 0 1m $ kubectl get service -n kube-system|grep -E 'elasticsearch|kibana' elasticsearch-logging 10.254.77.62 <none> 9200/TCP 2m kibana-logging 10.254.8.113 <none> 5601/TCP 2m

kibana Pod 第一次启动时会用**较长时间(10-20分钟)**来优化和 Cache 状态页面,可以 tailf 该 Pod 的日志观察进度:

$ kubectl logs kibana-logging-1432287342-0gdng -n kube-system -f
ELASTICSEARCH_URL=http://elasticsearch-logging:9200 server.basePath: /api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kibana-logging {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:08:06Z","tags":["info","optimize"],"pid":7,"message":"Optimizing and caching bundles for kibana and statusPage. This may take a few minutes"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:17Z","tags":["info","optimize"],"pid":7,"message":"Optimization of bundles for kibana and statusPage complete in 610.40 seconds"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:17Z","tags":["status","plugin:kibana@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:18Z","tags":["status","plugin:elasticsearch@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"yellow","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:kbn_vislib_vis_types@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:markdown_vis@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:metric_vis@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:spyModes@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:statusPage@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["status","plugin:table_vis@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready","prevState":"uninitialized","prevMsg":"uninitialized"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:19Z","tags":["listening","info"],"pid":7,"message":"Server running at http://0.0.0.0:5601"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:24Z","tags":["status","plugin:elasticsearch@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"yellow","message":"Status changed from yellow to yellow - No existing Kibana index found","prevState":"yellow","prevMsg":"Waiting for Elasticsearch"} {"type":"log","@timestamp":"2017-04-12T13:18:29Z","tags":["status","plugin:elasticsearch@1.0.0","info"],"pid":7,"state":"green","message":"Status changed from yellow to green - Kibana index ready","prevState":"yellow","prevMsg":"No existing Kibana index found"}

访问 kibana

  1. 通过 kube-apiserver 访问:获取 monitoring-grafana 服务 URL
    $ kubectl cluster-info Kubernetes master is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443 Elasticsearch is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/elasticsearch-logging Heapster is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/heapster Kibana is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kibana-logging KubeDNS is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard monitoring-grafana is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana monitoring-influxdb is running at https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb

    浏览器访问 URL: https://172.20.0.113:6443/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kibana-logging/app/kibana

  2. 通过 kubectl proxy 访问:创建代理
    $ kubectl proxy --address='172.20.0.113' --port=8086 --accept-hosts='^*$' Starting to serve on 172.20.0.113:8086

    浏览器访问 URL:http://172.20.0.113:8086/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kibana-logging

在 Settings -> Indices 页面创建一个 index(相当于 mysql 中的一个 database),选中 Index contains time-based events,使用默认的 logstash-* pattern,点击 Create ;

可能遇到的问题

如果你在这里发现Create按钮是灰色的无法点击,且Time-filed name中没有选项,fluentd要读取/var/log/containers/目录下的log日志,这些日志是从/var/lib/docker/containers/${CONTAINER_ID}/${CONTAINER_ID}-json.log链接过来的,查看你的docker配置,—log-dirver需要设置为json-file格式,默认的可能是journald,参考docker logging。

标签: kubernetes k8s docker kubectl Ubuntu


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